OEPAC - Observatory of Emergencies in Cultural Heritage > Resources > Human Threats > Armed Conflicts


Armed Conflicts

Report #3: New evidences indicated the devastation in Palestine: Genocide, Urbicide and Ecocide (Documentation and evidence gathered: December 16th 2023 – January 31th, 2024).
2024 - ICOMOS

This ICOMOS report is an update to the report published by ICOMOS Palestine on December 19, 2023, where more than 200 of the 350 heritage sites in the Gaza Strip were attacked and severely damaged or even demolished.

Report on the Impact of the Recent War in 2023 on the Cultural Heritage in Gaza Strip – Palestine
2023 - Heritage For Peace

This preliminary report provides a detailed overview of the importance of Gaza’s heritage, including an explanation of its most important heritage landmarks and highlighting key sites affected during a month of war. This study is intended to teach and raise awareness among the international community of the fact that the Palestinian people of Gaza are suffering the loss of their heritage, history and cultural identity, along with their significant humanitarian suffering resulting from this war.

Protección de los bienes culturales. Manual Militar
2019 - UNESCO - VVAA

The manual seeks to underline the practical implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention and its second protocol, which allows Member States, in cooperation with
UNESCO, to incorporate the protection of cultural property into their military directives and instructions. In order to more efficiently consolidate long-term security objectives, particularly social cohesion and reconciliation

Implementation strategy of the thematic programme “Heritage for Peace”
2021 - UNESCO

This document presents a strategic framework for the implementation of the Thematic Program "Heritage for Peace" adopted with the aim of strengthening the role of heritage in conflict prevention, in conflict situations, in conflict resolution and as a tool for post-conflict recovery. ​

Cultural Cleansing and Mass Atrocities: Protecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict Zones
2017 - WEISS. Thomas G, CONNELLY. Nina

In this first issue, Thomas G. Weiss and Nina Connelly examine the relationship between cultural cleansing and mass atrocities. After summarizing the key debates surrounding the destruction of cultural heritage in areas of armed conflict, Weiss and Connelly present options for creating an international framework dedicated to its protection. They demonstrate how the UN's Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, a pre-existing framework that allows international intervention to stop war crimes or genocide, could be adapted to protect cultural heritage sites. This document presents the various challenges and issues related to the protection of cultural heritage and proposes a way forward in developing a unified international response.

Cultural Genocide and the Protection of Cultural Heritage
2018 - LUCK Edward C.

In this second issue, Edward C. Luck, Arnold A. Saltzman Professor of Professional Practice and Director of the International Conflict Resolution Specialization at the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) at Columbia University, explores the importance of terminology, framework and context when developing an international policy to protect cultural heritage. Luck describes the five conceptual frameworks most commonly used when defining this type of policy: legal, accountability, security, counterterrorism, and atrocity prevention. He then introduces cultural genocide as an additional lens through which to examine the destruction of cultural heritage.

Conflict and Cultural Heritage: A Moral Analysis of the Challenges of Heritage Protection
2019 - FROWE. Helen, MATRAVERS. Derek

In this third issue of the series, philosophers Helen Frowe and Derek Matravers pose a key question: what is the appropriate response to attacks on cultural heritage? They claim that we must more carefully consider the morality of using lethal military force to protect cultural heritage. Frowe and Matravers challenge the main argument that there is a causal relationship between the destruction of cultural heritage and genocide, and further argue that the defense of heritage should not be treated with the same weight or urgency and therefore should not be protected. in accordance with the same international policies—as the defense of human lives. Calling for expanded theory, empirical data, and the consideration of morality in the making of international resolutions, Frowe and Matravers present a compelling and thoughtful critique that stimulates debate on this critical issue.

Cultural Heritage under Siege Laying the Foundation for a Legal and Political Framework to Protect Cultural Heritage at Risk in Zones of Armed Conflict
2020 - CUNO. James, WEISS Thomas G.

The fourth issue of the J. Paul Getty Trust's Occasional Papers on Cultural Heritage Policy is the result of a multi-day meeting on the issue of cultural heritage under siege. It presents an edited collection of presentations and discussions by nineteen academics and professionals from various specialties related to the field of cultural heritage.

Proteger de los bienes culturales en caso de conflicto armado
2005 - UNESCO, Escudo Azul

Information kit to promote accession to the Hague Convention (25pp)

Protección de los bienes culturales en caso de conflicto armado
2002 - VVAA, CICR

ICRC report of the meeting of experts held in Geneva in 2002 (226pp)